Komplet torso med 27 udtagelige dele, åben ryg, muskler, et foster og udskiftelige kønsorganer

Complete torso with 27 removable parts, open back, muscles, a fetus and interchangeable genitals

Complete torso with 27 removable parts, open back, muscles, a fetus and interchangeable genitals

1) Price: DKK 5,500 (incl. VAT)
2) Size: 90 cm in height and weighs approximately 10 kg
3) Removable parts: 27 pcs.

4) Color, stand, material quality and inclusive/exclusive list of names
The skin looks like rubber, which shines a little. The other colors appear muted, slightly dark and shiny. The stand is an approximately 2.3 cm thick plastic plate in grey-white, which measures approx. 23 x 33 cm.

The material quality differs from tissue to tissue. Low material quality is seen in 4 places/tissue: The lower part of the trachea as well as the esophagus and aorta thoracica can be taken out (in addition, the trachea can be separated from the latter 2). The material is soft and does not seem durable. The paint wears off relatively easily on edges and ends. The diaphragm cannot be removed, but is made of soft material, which must be manipulated to get the liver in particular in place. in the sides, there is a tendency for the diaphragm to detach from the inside of the torso. The material in the liver is soft, but colored through. The liver is large and must be pressed into place and thereby manipulated into shape, which must explain the choice of material. It must be emphasized that the rest of the torso model's tissue is made of hard materials and seems very robust.

On the torso model, the most important anatomical structures are numbered. An English name list is included.

5) Anatomical details (mentioned from the top of the model downwards in the following 4 groups)

I - The musculoskeletal system (bones, cartilage, ligaments, fascia and skeletal muscles)

Bones: A lot is seen - mainly in the head, chest and back. In the head, the right part of the skull can be seen inside with nice details such as protrusions and nerves through holes and blood vessels. On the outside, a bit of the facial skeleton can be seen around the right eye, where the various bones are seen without details such as holes. Furthermore, an insignificant small part of the lower jaw on the left side and the tongue bone with various muscle attachments can be seen.

Inside the torso, the clavicle and ribs can be seen in cross-section at the open and cut-through chest wall. Furthermore, most of the front surface of the ribs is visible when all the lung tissue has been removed from the chest. In addition, the front part of the chest can be removed. Among other tissues such as skin, pectoral and rib muscles as well as the female breast, it shows a little of the ribs, much of the clavicles and costal cartilage.

In the pelvis, the iliac crests, the transition between the 5th lumbar vertebra and the sacrum and some smaller bony structures at the bottom can be seen.

The open back shows different parts of the vertebrae from the upper neck joint to the sacrum (it is difficult to see the coccyx). Pins are not included. The vertebrae are thus "open", so that the vertebral canal with nerves is visible. The bone tissue is seen in the color beige, and virtually no details are visible in the bone tissue (but studs are visible). The 7th and 12th thoracic vertebrae, on the other hand, are complete. The latter can even be taken out. When this vertebra is taken out, a disc is seen on top of the vertebral body. It doesn't look like a real discus, but 2 different colors are painted to symbolize its 2 main components. In a large part of the back, the facet joints are also visible, which are very artificial.

Cartilage is shown in green color on the nose, in the throat, in the trachea, in the chest (rib cartilage) and at the 5th lumbar vertebra in the torso (disc). Ligaments virtually invisible. Fascia not seen either.
Skeletal muscles seen in this model's left side (most do), while a large portion of the right side is shown with skin. Both scope and level of detail are very high. Both the face, the neck and the neck are shown with muscles in layers. Since the tongue bone is shown with muscle attachments, and the facial skeleton below the right eye is not visible, neck muscles are shown with particularly nice details. Shoulder muscles are shown along with the beginnings of some muscles belonging to the upper arm. At the thigh, many muscles can be seen on the front and back.

In the open back, the superficial muscles are seen on both sides of the spine and are very easy to identify. Some of the deep musculature of the back is also shown, but apart from a few, it is generally difficult to identify specific deep muscles. The musculature of the chest wall and abdominal wall is also shown with many details, such as includes the rib musculature. Many muscles can also be seen in the pelvis when the replaceable genitals are removed.

II – Blood vessels (arteries and veins), nerves and the lymphatic system as well as other things such as salivary glands

Both the very largest arteries and veins as well as a lot of smaller blood vessels are included. In addition to the large vessels in the neck, chest and stomach, detailed blood supply (arteries and veins) can also be seen in many other organs. As for the brain, arteries can be seen on the entire surface of the right hemisphere and the right part of the cerebellum (which can be taken out), the internal carotid artery, the superior and inferior sagittal sinuses and part of the circulus arteriosus cerebri at the base of the skull (right side).

In the chest cavity, smaller blood vessels are seen in the heart ("coronary vessels"), the lungs and on the front of the thoracic spine including the beginning of the ribs (when all lung tissue has been removed). In addition to the thoracic aorta, azygos and v. hemiazygos are seen, among other things. In the abdomen, blood vessels to the stomach, small and large intestine, pancreas, liver and right kidney (which can be opened) can be seen. In the right kidney, the blood supply is very detailed. An opening in the surface of the left thigh also shows some blood vessels. In the back, some veins and the vertebral artery can be seen.

The nervous system seen in various places - but not to a large extent. When you take out the right part of the brain, nerves can be seen in yellow both on the brainstem and through holes in the base of the skull (right side). The open back shows many details such as spinal nerves (very detailed), spinal ganglia, the 3 spinal membranes, cauda equina and filum terminale. A cross-section of the spinal cord shows the gray matter, where the H-like structure is also seen.

On the front of the thoracic spine is the truncus sympaticus (the border cord) with ganglia. In the pelvis, spinal nerves from the sacrum and small examples of nerve supply to skeletal muscles can be seen.

Lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes can be seen in different places. The thoracic duct is seen on the front of the thoracic spine (when all lung tissue has been removed). As you can see some lymphatic vessels around the venous system at the bottom of the neck, you can also see the end of the thoracic duct in the venous system on the left side. Furthermore, quite a few lymph nodes are seen in the left lung root as well as lymphatic vessels and nodes in a small area on the front of the left thigh.

As for glands, the model includes all 3 salivary glands. The woman's breast is also seen: On the right side with skin and nipple - on the left side without skin (glandular tissue and urethra).

III – Internal organs (grouped)

The brain : Only the right part of the brain can be taken out (in one piece), and it resembles the brain in both color (roughly) and shape. The right part of the brain is rather an illustration/drawing of the brain tissue and blood vessels. The size is natural, and you see many neuroanatomical structures. In the left part, you can easily see the general division into cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem. In the cerebrum (telencephalon and diencephalon), the 1st - 4th cerebral lobes as well as the thalamus and hypothalamus (and the pituitary gland) are primarily seen. In the cerebellum, both the tonsilla and vermis are seen. In the brainstem you can see the cranial nerves and the 3 different parts (the midbrain, the brainstem and the medulla oblongata). Other structures such as the brain stem, fornix and the first 2 cranial nerves are also seen.

Chest cavity organs : The heart can be taken out and divided into 2. On the surface, the heart's blood supply can be seen in typical red and blue color as well as larger blood vessels to and from the heart. When the front part of the heart is lifted off, all 4 valves are seen in the form of the 2 different valve systems. There are clear differences in the inner surface of atria versus heart chambers. Furthermore, it is clearly seen that the muscle wall (the myocardium) is thickest in the left ventricle. The impulse conduction system is not seen, but details such as the fossa ovalis, ostium sinus coronarii and papillary muscles are.

Both lungs can be divided into 2 and all lung tissue can be taken out of the chest cavity. You can see the division into lobes, the marbled surface, the lung root and the branching of the bronchi, arteries and veins in different angles. As previously described, few lymph nodes are seen in the left lung root.

Esophagus, thoracic aorta and trachea (with main bronchi) can be taken out. Furthermore, the trachea with main bronchi can be separated from the other 2 structures. The surface of the esophagus appears muscular and its passage through the diaphragm is evident. The middle floor is attached to the inside of the torso.

Abdominal organs : The stomach can be removed and opened. On the external surface many arteries are seen, and the organ can easily be divided into its various sections. Inside, the folds (plicae gastricae) are clearly visible.

The pancreas, the entire duodenum and the spleen can be removed in one piece. The pancreas is seen with the characteristic ductus pancreaticus and relationships to blood vessels. The duodenum is seen in great detail. You can see both wall layers (in cross-section) and a total opening showing the folds of the mucosa as well as the minor and major duodenal papilla. You also see a bit of the ductus choledochus and its mouth on the papilla (together with the ductus pancreaticus). As for the spleen, only the surface and arteries to the organ are visible.

Almost the entire colon and the remaining part of the small intestine can also be removed in one piece. The colon is also shown with wall layers (in cross-section) and a total opening so that the folds are seen at the ileocaecal site – i.e. the end of the small intestine, the caecum and the beginning of the ascending colon. Furthermore, the appendix vermiformis is seen as well as the three characteristics: Haustra coli, taeniae coli and appendices epiploicae. As previously described, the intestinal blood supply is also seen.

Liver and gallbladder can be taken out in one piece. Larger blood vessels and ligaments/peritoneal folds are seen.

Right kidney seen from the inside, because the front surface can be taken out (equivalent to dividing the kidney "from edge to edge"). You can see very good details such as cortex, pith, blood vessels and the renal pelvis. Some are seen in 3 dimensions – primarily the marrow (pyramids) and the renal pelvis. The blood vessels are also very detailed. Adrenal glands and left kidney cannot be taken out or seen inside. The ureters are also seen.

Genitals, bladder and rectum belonging to the man or woman can be inserted. Both "sets" can be divided into 2, so that a cross-section can be seen. Furthermore, the penis can be removed and also divided into 2. The cross-section of both sets shows the lumen of the rectum and the interior of the urinary bladder. You can also see many details such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and labia in one set, as well as testicles, epididymis, prostate and penis in the other. The level of detail is high and includes soft tissue such as musculature, adipose tissue and blood vessels (few). A fetus with a length of approximately 3.5 cm is included and may lie in the uterus.

Looking at the torso without genitalia, many numbered pelvic muscles and yellow spinal nerves from the sacrum, some arteries and the 5th lumbar vertebra are seen. The sacrum and 5th lumbar vertebra are seen in light blue, which is probably to illustrate ligaments on the front.

IV – The sensory organs: Skin, eyes and ear-nose-throat

The skin seems artificial and rubbery. Seen without hair and the like. Eyes : The right eye can be taken out – the left one is not visible (is closed). On the right eye (front) you can see the pupil, the iris and the sclera with a few blood vessels, which are all painted on. Furthermore, the eye muscles and lacrimal gland can be seen. The inner layer of the eye is not visible, but white material around the metal stick, which holds the eye firmly in the torso model, is probably to symbolize the optic nerve.

The ears are closed - but beautiful.
Nasal cavity and oral cavity is seen very clearly in cross section and with structures such as the tongue, because all bone tissue belonging to the right part of the facial skeleton (under the right eye) is not included. You can see many details such as muscles in the region, clam bones in the nose and salivary glands but no real teeth (however, you can sense the anchoring of 2 teeth in the bone tissue). The surface of the tongue looks uneven. Posteriorly, the papilla vallata is seen, but the other papillae cannot be identified.

Furthermore, an area without skin can be seen on the left side of the face (cheek) with muscles and the large parotid gland with the duct.

The neck is not visible from the inside . You see different structures on the front (mainly the front part of the throat, the thyroid gland, blood vessels and the muscles of the neck).
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